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Bulgarian Journal of Soil Science, Agrochemistry and Ecology
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Influence of agrotechnical farming practices on the productivity of maize and potatoes grown in conventional and organic crop rotations
Iliyana Gerasimova, Miladin Nazarkov
Abstract: A study was conducted by analyzing data obtained from field experiments with maize and potatoes grown in crop rotations on two soil types Haplic Vertisols in Bozhurishte (Sofia) and Chromic Luvisols in Suhodol (Sofia) of ISSAPP “N. Pushkarov”. The influence of herbicides, mineral fertilization, and organic biostimulant on the yield of maize grown in a conventional crop rotation under the conditions of Haplic Vertisols has been studied. The effect of the applied green fertilization on the yield of potatoes, included in the crop rotation structure for biological cultivation under the conditions of Chromic Luvisols in Suhodol, has been studied.
The purpose of the study is to analyze the yields of crops included in the structure of crop rotations under conditions of conventional cultivation of maize and biological green fertilization (peas and rye) of potatoes, depending on the applied agricultural practices (mineral, organic, green fertilization, and two plant protection regimes). The obtained yields for the maize grown at the Bozhurishte experimental field, represent a summary of the applied cultivation technology against the tested factors and the conditions of the year. The trends of the influence of the investigated factors on the yield of additional production follow those of the yield in grain. The highest yield of 5,966.6 kg/ha was obtained in the fertilized variants for B1a2 treated with herbicide and biostimulant Alga 600. A yield of 5,840 kg/ha was obtained in B2a3 treated with herbicide mixture and Leili 2000. The obtained yields of maize are relatively low, which is explained by the insufficient amount of precipitation during the critical stages of its development. These findings confirm the unstable productivity of maize growing under non-irrigated conditions. Fertilization has the most significant influence on the structural elements of maize - length of cob, weight of a single cob and weight of 1000 grains.
The analysis shows that after ploughing the green manure mixture, the largest amount of N (45.8-57.2 kg/ha) and K (43.6-50.8 kg/ha) enters the soil, with the main share realized by the leguminous crop, due to the higher biomass obtained and the higher content of nitrogen and potassium, respectively.
The placement of potatoes after another row crop in the crop rotation in combination with green fertilization and the choice of variety are prerequisites for successful organic production (average yield of 9,517 kg/ha). The medium fraction of tubers prevails in the yield structure. The main quality indicators of the tubers are within the typical limits for the culture and the variety.
Keywords: biostimulant; crop rotation; green manure; intermediate crops; maize; potatoes
Citation: Gerasimova, I., & Nazarkov, M. (2023). Influence of agrotechnical farming practices on the productivity of maize and potatoes grown in conventional and organic crop rotations. Bulgarian Journal of Soil Science Agrochemisty and Ecology, 57(4), 27-40 (Bg).
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Date published: 2023-12-20
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